References and Further Reading 1. Extending Moral Standing As noted above, perhaps the most fundamental question that must be asked when regarding a particular environmental ethic is simply, what obligations do we have concerning the natural environment? Thus, an anthropocentric ethic claims that only human beings are morally considerable in their own right, meaning that all the direct moral obligations we possess, including those we have with regard to the environment, are owed to our fellow human beings. While the history of western philosophy is dominated by this kind anthropocentrism, it has come under considerable attack from many environmental ethicists.
His principle of equal consideration of interests does not dictate equal treatment of all those with interests, since different interests warrant different treatment.
All have an interest in avoiding pain, for instance, but relatively few have an interest in cultivating their abilities. Not only does his principle justify different treatment for different interests, but it allows different treatment for the same interest when diminishing marginal utility is a factor.
For example, this approach would privilege a starving person's interest in food over the same interest of someone who is only slightly hungry.
Among the more important human interests are those in avoiding pain, in developing one's abilities, in satisfying basic needs for food and shelter, in enjoying warm personal relationships, in being free to pursue one's projects without interference, "and many others". Singer holds that a being's interests should always be weighed according to that being's concrete properties.
The journey model is tolerant of some frustrated desire and explains why persons who have embarked on their journeys are not replaceable. Only a personal interest in continuing to live brings the journey model into play. This model also explains the priority that Singer attaches to interests over trivial desires and pleasures.
Ethical conduct is justified by reasons that go beyond prudence to "something bigger than the individual", addressing a larger audience. Singer thinks this going-beyond identifies moral reasons as "somehow universal", specifically in the injunction to 'love thy neighbour as thyself', interpreted by him as demanding that one give the same weight to the interests of others as one gives to one's own interests.
This universalising step, which Singer traces from Kant to Hare, : Universalisation leads directly to utilitarianism, Singer argues, on the strength of the thought that one's own interests cannot count for more than the interests of others.
Taking these into account, one must weigh them up and adopt the course of action that is most likely to maximise the interests of those affected; utilitarianism has been arrived at.
Singer's universalising step applies to interests without reference to who has them, whereas a Kantian's applies to the judgments of rational agents in Kant's kingdom of ends, or Rawls 's Original Position, etc. Singer regards Kantian universalisation as unjust to animals.
Effective altruism and world poverty[ edit ] Main article: Effective altruism Singer at an effective altruism conference in Melbourne in Singer's ideas have contributed to the rise of effective altruism. While Singer has previously written at length about the moral imperative to reduce poverty and eliminate the suffering of nonhuman animals, particularly in the meat industryhe writes about how the effective altruism movement is doing these things more effectively in his book, The Most Good You Can Do.
He is a board member of Animal Charity Evaluators, a charity evaluator used by many members of the effective altruism community which recommends the most cost-effective animal advocacy charities and interventions.
TLYCS was founded after Singer released his eponymous bookin which he argues more generally in favour of giving to charities that help to end global poverty.
In particular, he expands upon some of the arguments made in his essay " Famine, Affluence, and Morality ", in which he posits that citizens of rich nations are morally obligated to give at least some of their disposable income to charities that help the global poor.
He supports this using the drowning child analogy, which states that most people would rescue a drowning child from a pond, even if it meant that their expensive clothes were ruined, so we clearly value a human life more than the value of our material possessions.
As a result, we should take a significant portion of the money that we spend on our possessions and instead donate it to charity. Published inAnimal Liberation  has been cited as a formative influence on leaders of the modern animal liberation movement.
There are far more differences, for instance, between a great ape and an oyster, for example, than between a human and a great ape, and yet the former two are lumped together as "animals", whereas we are considered "human" in a way that supposedly differentiates us from all other "animals.
Ryder to describe the practice of privileging humans over other animals, and therefore argues in favour of the equal consideration of interests of all sentient beings.
Singer describes himself as a flexible vegan. He writes, "That is, I'm vegan when it's not too difficult to be vegan, but I'm not rigid about this, if I'm traveling for example.is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.
I begin by briefly tracing the history of the split between environmental ethics and animal liberation, go on to sketch a theory of value that I think is implicit in animal liberation, and explain how this theory is consistent with strong environmental commitments.
Animal Liberation is Not an Environmental Ethic: A Response to Dale Jamieson. Answer to Animal Liberation is an Environmental Ethic DALE JAMIESON Carleton College 1 North College Street Northfield, MN , USA ABSTRACT: I begin by.
Environmental Ethics. The field of environmental ethics concerns human beings’ ethical relationship with the natural environment. While numerous philosophers have written on this topic throughout history, environmental ethics only developed into a specific philosophical discipline in the s. This emergence was no doubt due to the increasing awareness in the s of the effects that.
Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin TY - JOUR. T1 - Animal liberation is an environmental ethic. AU - Jamieson,Dale. PY - /2. Y1 - /2. N2 - I begin by briefly tracing the history of the split between environmental ethics and animal liberation, go on to sketch a theory of value that I think is implicit in animal liberation, and explain how this theory is consistent with strong environmental commitments.