There are three types of argument strategies: Classical, Rogerian and Toulmin.
Key Figures in Naturalistic Epistemology a. Quine usually gets credit for initiating the contemporary wave of naturalistic epistemology with his essay, "Epistemology Naturalized.
First is confirmation holism - the view that only substantial bodies of theory, rather than individual claims, are empirically testable. Third, he assumes there are only two Argument essay youtube to approach that problem. The idea behind reconstructing theoretical vocabulary in sensory terms is to model epistemology on studies in the foundations of mathematics.
Such studies show how to translate mathematical statements into the language of logic and set theory, and they show how to deduce suitably translated mathematical theorems from logical truths and set theoretic axioms. This allows us to judge the strength of our justification in believing mathematical claims: Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap sought a similar account of our justification for believing scientific theories.
Given a translation of theoretical claims into observational vocabulary, we might be able to show how our theories could be derived logically from observation sentences, logical truths, and set theory.
Such a project could not be a complete success. For one thing as Carnap was well awareour theories cannot be derived logically from observations - the theories include generalizations covering unobserved cases.
Nevertheless, such philosophers as Carnap thought the translation of theory into observational terms would be useful.
It would allow us to see just how far our theories outstrip their observational evidence. Quine emphasizes a second reason why the reconstructive approach must fail: Theoretical statements cannot, in general, be translated into purely observational vocabulary.
To effect such translations, we would need to identify the observational conditions of verification or disconfirmation for individual theoretical statements. But, as Quine argues in his other most famous essay, "Two Dogmas of Empiricism," individual theoretical statements do not have unique conditions of verification or disconfirmation.
Rather, we must test theoretical statements in groups large enough to have observational consequences, and the results confirm or disconfirm the groups as wholes.
When the observations a theory predicts do not pan out, there is typically a wide range of adjustments we could make in response. We might, for example, give up the claim that this liquid is an acid, or the claim that this is a piece of litmus paper, or the claim we are not hallucinating, and so forth.
Consequently, the reconstructionist approach cannot succeed. Knowledge thus approached is a natural phenomenon, the outcome of a natural process whereby sensory stimulation leads to theories about the world.
To understand the connection between the stimulation and the theories - and to understand how far beyond the stimulation our theories go - we study the process scientifically. The point is not to "reconstruct" the transition, but to understand it as it actually occurs.
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