Introduction One of the major claims made regarding qualitative methods is that they diverge from scientific explanation models in terms of the need for hypothesis testing. A scientific hypothesis is based on a background theory, typically assuming the form of a proposition whose validity depends on empirical confirmation. Otherwise, a hypothesis is nothing but an imaginative conjecture. Moreover, when researchers do not obtain empirical confirmation for their hypothesis, the theory in question or part of it may not be able to predict relevant aspects of the phenomenon under investigation.
Large international organisation bureaucratic structure: Precision, speed, unambiguity, … strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration.
They are better suited for more complex or larger scale organizations, usually adopting a tall structure.
The tension between bureaucratic structures and non-bureaucratic is echoed in Burns and Stalker's  distinction between mechanistic and organic structures.
The Weberian characteristics of bureaucracy are: Clear defined roles and responsibilities A hierarchical structure Respect for merit Bureaucratic structures have many levels of management ranging from senior executives to regional managers, all the way to department store managers.
Since there are many levels, decision-making authority has to pass through more layers than flatter organizations. A bureaucratic organization has rigid and tight procedures, policies and constraints.
This kind of structure is reluctant to adapt or change what they have been doing since the company started. Organizational charts exist for every department, and everyone understands who is in charge and what their responsibilities are for every situation.
Decisions are made through an organizedaucratic structures, the authority is at the top and information is then flowed from top to bottom. This causes for more rules and standards for the company which operational process is watched with close supervision.
Some advantages for bureaucratic structures for top-level managers are they have a tremendous control over organizational structure decisions.
This works best for managers who have a command and control style of managing. Strategic decision-making is also faster because there are fewer people it has to go through to approve.
This can make it hard for a company to adapt to changing conditions in the marketplace. Post-bureaucratic[ edit ] The term of post bureaucratic is used in two senses in the organizational literature: This may include total quality managementculture management and matrix managementamongst others.
None of these however has left behind the core tenets of Bureaucracy. Hierarchies still exist, authority is still Weber's rational, legal type, and the organization is still rule bound. Heckscher, arguing along these lines, describes them as cleaned up bureaucracies,  rather than a fundamental shift away from bureaucracy.
Gideon Kunda, in his classic study of culture management at 'Tech' argued that 'the essence of bureaucratic control - the formalization, codification and enforcement of rules and regulations - does not change in principle Another smaller group of theorists have developed the theory of the Post-Bureaucratic Organization.
Charles Heckscher has developed an ideal type, the post-bureaucratic organization, in which decisions are based on dialogue and consensus rather than authority and command, the organization is a network rather than a hierarchy, open at the boundaries in direct contrast to culture management ; there is an emphasis on meta-decision-making rules rather than decision-making rules.
This sort of horizontal decision-making by consensus model is often used in housing cooperativesother cooperatives and when running a non-profit or community organization.Organizational Culture PAGE 10 Reading an Organization's Culture: General Electric (GE) Introduction Every business has its own set of values and beliefs that make up an organizational culture that is unique to each specific business.
Over , essays, research papers, and term papers available at kaja-net.com Get help on your essay writing today. Apr 10, · ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR DIVERSITY COMMUNICATION ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND GROUP DYNAMICS MGT/ July 20, Organizational Culture is the system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that has developed within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".
It is difficult to define the genre into which essays . The purpose of this research paper is to identify and evaluate GE's organizational cultureal appeal, shared values, customer base and customer service standards, characteristics of organizational culture, and to determine if GE's organizational culture is ethical, customer-responsive, or spiritual.
Organizational Culture Essay. An Organizational culture sums up a given set of meanings that are shared throughout the organization.
The shared meanings are often different, constituting the fundamental factors that differentiate one organization from another.