He specializes in Latin American politics and international political economy. He has published peer-reviewed work, book chapters, and review essays on democratization, economic globalization, political violence, and financial reform in Mexico. His current research focuses on democracy and civil military relations in Mexico, US-Mexico relations, and the politics of policymaking.
A decade after the fighting, however, the changes seem to have been more limited or perhaps relatively temporary ones. This article tries to assess what has and has not changed in the Middle East during the decade since the Kuwait crisis.
How did the Kuwait crisis and the ensuing war affect Arab politics and polities during the decade that followed?
Moreover, they allied with the non-Arab and often harshly criticized United States in this conflict. Egypt and Syria sent troops, and the Arab world endorsed tough sanctions against the Iraqi regime.
Each of these steps was unprecedented. Clearly, such steps were provoked by powerful motives. In the case of Kuwait and the other Gulf monarchies, there was a clear and rational fear that Iraq might well extinguish their independence altogether and loot their assets.
For other Arab states, notably Egypt, Iraq posed a threat to seize the leadership of the Arab world and to involve it in new and ultimately disastrous adventures. Indeed, it appeared to endanger their survival just as much as did his aggressive behavior. Features of this shift appeared to include: This possibility of a triumph for moderation in Iran would undercut the strength of Islamist, radical, anti-American, and anti-peace process forces in the Arab world as well.
On the one hand, this meant the relative obsolescence of the Arab armies which did not have high-technology arms, and on the other hand an increasing interest though not necessarily success in obtaining Weapons of Mass Destruction WMDespecially missiles.
By the yearhowever, these hopes were thrown into question or even refuted. The most obvious of these problems was the collapse of the Israel-Palestinian and Israel-Syrian peace processes. While the details of these events can be debated and analyzed in many ways, the fundamental problem was the difficulty for Syria or the Palestinians in making peace with Israel even in the context of major and extensive Israeli concessions.
As important as this breakdown was, however, it was not an isolated occurrence. A number of other developments were increasingly clear during the period coinciding roughly with the tenth anniversary of the Gulf war in January Especially important was the fact that moderate states were not ready to put pressure or even strong encouragement on Syria and the Palestinians to make a compromise agreement, even one based on meeting roughly 95 percent of their demands.
He limited change and cracked down on dissent. They made little attempt to change the views of the masses, which continued to accept many of the ideas that had held sway before It should be noted that public opinion is not an unchangeable force of nature but a also construct.
With their sweeping control over public debate through the media, educational system, repression, and other means, Arab leaders have more control over this sector than do their counterparts in other countries.
Even Egypt cracked down on nonpartisan human rights groups and research centers that made mild criticisms of government policy. Iraq and Iran were on the verge of obtaining nuclear weapons.
In part, the choice of such arms was a response to the high cost of conventional weapons, as well as their being seen as a powerful means of projecting influence onto neighbors. This channel became particularly significant in the proliferation of weaponry and opposition to American sanctions on Iran and Iraq.
In contrast to the Cold War era, Russia was usually more interested in profits than in political influence. Thus, by the tenth anniversary of the war, President Saddam Hussein remained relatively unscathed and on the verge of a comeback.
President Muhammad Khatami, though elected by a large margin and given a big parliamentary majority, proved unwilling or incapable of leading a domestic movement for actual change.
Reform efforts failed, the Arab-Israeli peace process fell apart.In order to conclude this account of the motivations behind the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in I would argue that whilst the long running disputes between Iraq and Kuwait were undoubtedly a major factor, the international and domestic climate of this period as well as relations with the U.S also played a huge part in the decision made by Saddam to .
"To live in this process is absolutely not to be able to notice it Each step was so small, so inconsequential, so well explained or, on occasion, 'regretted,' that, unless one were detached from the whole process from the beginning one no more saw it developing from day to day than a farmer in his field sees the corn growing.
Was the U.S. Invasion on Iraq Justified Page 1 of 21 Was the U.S. Invasion on Iraq Justified?
Even before the United States invaded Iraq in March , the prospect of a U.S. invasion was controversial, with millions of people around the world taking part in street demonstrations in protest. Related: CDC Director Resigns Showing Conflict of Interest and Big Pharma Influence Still Reigns at the CDC Because most diagnosed cases of the flu aren’t the flu.
So even if you’re a true believer in mainstream vaccine theory, you’re on the short end of the stick here.
Tony Cartalucci - Just a Lousy Journalist?. 18 th April London. Tony Cartalucci. Tony Cartalucci has written prolifically on the political turmoil in Thailand.
His writing focuses on the International dimension; the foreign interference in Thailand. Tony Blair: a liar and a coward War is the greatest interest bearing debt generator known to mankind War is Murder for Profit UNICEF say Iraqi children are dying EVERY MONTH - stop sanctions NOW!
To save the lives of innocent fellow countrymen Western rulers must stop military invasions, occupation and covert operations NOW!