His father was a master harness maker, and his mother was the daughter of a harness maker, though she was better educated than most women of her social class. Pietism was an evangelical Lutheran movement that emphasized conversion, reliance on divine grace, the experience of religious emotions, and personal devotion involving regular Bible study, prayer, and introspection. Leibniz — was then very influential in German universities. But Kant was also exposed to a range of German and British critics of Wolff, and there were strong doses of Aristotelianism and Pietism represented in the philosophy faculty as well.
Methods employed[ edit ] Feminist scholarship has developed a variety of ways to unpack literature in order to understand its essence through a feminist lens. Gynocriticism was introduced during the time of second wave feminism. The ultimate goal of any of these tools is to uncover and expose patriarchal underlying tensions within novels and interrogate the ways in which our basic literary assumptions about such novels are contingent on female subordination.
In this way, the accessibility of literature broadens to a far more inclusive and holistic population. Moreover, works that historically received little or no attention, given the historical constraints around female authorship in some cultures, are able to be heard in their original form and unabridged.
This makes a broader collection of literature for all readers insofar as all great works of literature are given exposure without bias towards a gender influenced system. The rise of decadent feminist literature in the s was meant to directly challenge the sexual politics of the patriarchy.
By employing a wide range of female sexual exploration and lesbian and queer identities by those like Rita Felski and Judith Bennet, women were able attract more attention about feminist topics in literature. It has also considered gender in the terms of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysisas part of the deconstruction of existing relations of power, and as a concrete political investment.
More specifically, modern feminist criticism deals with those issues related to the perceived intentional and unintentional patriarchal programming within key aspects of society including education, politics and the work force.
Beginning with the interrogation of male-centric literature that portrayed women in a demeaning and oppressed model, theorist such as Mary Ellman, Kate Millet and Germaine Greer challenged past imaginations of the feminine within literary scholarship.
Within second-wave feminism, three phases can be defined: During the feminine phase, female writers adhered to male values. By this time, scholars were not only interested in simply demarcating narratives of oppression but also creating a literary space for past, present and future female literary scholars to substantiate their experience in a genuine way that appreciates the aesthetic form of their works.
Additionally, Black literary feminist scholars began to emerge, in the post-Civil Rights era of the United States, as a response to the masculine-centric narratives of Black empowerments began to gain momentum over female voices. An Anthology, edited by Cade is seen as essential to the rise of Black literary criticism and theory.
The literary scholarship also included began with the perception of Black female writers being under received relative to their talent.
The Combahee River Collective released what is called one of the most famous pieces in Black literary scholarship known as "A Black Feminist Statement"which sought to prove that literary feminism was an important component to black female liberation.
This publication has become a staple of feminist criticism and has expanded the realm of publications considered to be feminist works, especially in the 19th century. The book specifically argues that women have largely been considered in two distinct categories by men in academia, monsters or angels.
Today, writers like Gloria E. During that same time, Deborah E. McDowell published New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism, which called for a more theoretical school of criticism versus the current writings, which she deemed overly practical.
As time moved forward, the theory began to disperse in ideology.
Many decided to shift towards the nuanced psychological factors of the Black experience and further away from broad sweeping generalizations. Others began to connect their works to the politics of lesbianism.
Some decided to analyze the Black experience through their relationship to the Western world. Regardless, these scholars continue to employ a variety of methods to explore the identity of Black feminism in literature.Margaret Fuller, Wandering Pilgrim [Meg Murray] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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National liberation, national renaissance, the restoration of nationhood to the people, commonwealth: whatever may be the headings used or the new formulas introduced, decolonization is always a violent phenomenon.
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