There were three main types of soldiers during the Middle Ages:
Etymology[ edit ] The word knight, from Old English cniht "boy" or "servant" is a cognate of the German word Knecht "servant, bondsman, vassal".
Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands.
The verb "to knight" to make someone a knight appears around ; and, from the same time, the word "knighthood" shifted from "adolescence" to "rank or dignity of a knight". An Equestrian Latinfrom eques "horseman", from equus "horse"  was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire.
This class is often translated as "knight"; the medieval knight, however, was called miles in Latin which in classical Latin meant "soldier", normally infantry. Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier whence chivalryPortuguese cavaleiro, and Romanian cavaler.
German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. Bucellarius In ancient Rome Knights middle ages was a knightly class Ordo Equestris order of mounted nobles. Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, and some armies, such as those of the Ostrogothswere mainly cavalry.
When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours inthe Frankish forces were still largely infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight.
Carolingian age[ edit ] In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin. At about this time the Franks increasingly remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted infantry, with the discovery of the stirrupand would continue to do so for centuries afterwards.
The older Carolingian ceremony of presenting a young man with weapons influenced the emergence of knighthood ceremonies, in which a noble would be ritually given weapons and declared to be a knight, usually amid some festivities.
The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries. The period of chaos in the 9th and 10th centuries, between the fall of the Carolingian central authority and the rise of separate Western and Eastern Frankish kingdoms later to become France and Germany respectively only entrenched this newly landed warrior class.
This was because governing power and defense against VikingMagyar and Saracen attack became an essentially local affair which revolved around these new hereditary local lords and their demesnes.
In the course of the 12th century knighthood became a social rank, with a distinction being made between milites gregarii non-noble cavalrymen and milites nobiles true knights. Although any medieval knight going to war would automatically serve as a man-at-arms, not all men-at-arms were knights.
The first military orders of knighthood were those of the Knights Hospitallers and of the Holy Sepulchreboth founded at the First Crusade offollowed by the Order of Saint LazarusKnights Templars and the Teutonic Knights At the time of their foundation, these were intended as monastic orderswhose members would act as simple soldiers protecting pilgrims.
It was only over the following century, with the successful conquest of the Holy Land and the rise of the crusader statesthat these orders became powerful and prestigious.
The great European legends of warriors such as the paladinsthe Matter of France and the Matter of Britain popularized the notion of chivalry among the warrior class. The higher nobles grant the vassals their portions of land fiefs in return for their loyalty, protection, and service.From the Middle Ages onward, French rulers believed their kingdoms had natural borders: the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rhine.
This was used as a pretext for an aggressive policy and repeated invasions. The belief, however, had little basis in reality for not all of these territories were part of the Kingdom and the authority of the King within his kingdom would be quite fluctuant. Knight is a term to refer to a warrior or nobleman in former times, or today to refer to a person who has been given a royal recognition.
The Middle Ages in Europe occurred between and CE. It was the age of feudalism and manors, of lords, ladies, knights, serfs, and peasants. May 11, · MIDIEVAL WEAPONS AND COMBAT - Knights Armor (MIDDLE AGES BATTLE HISTORY DOCUMENTARY) Presenter Mike Loades takes us on a fascinating tour of medieval arms and armour, and demonstrates their.
Knights of the Middle Ages were gentleman-soldiers, usually high-born, raised by the king or lord to privileged military status after long training. Updated September JUMP TO: Terms & Glossaries / Timelines / Maps / Feudalism - Daily Life - Carolingian Empire/Charlemagne.
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